Why British Police Remain Unarmed

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Although this column principally presents a Brit’s perspective on developments in American politics, occasionally I will bring you news and political affairs from Europe and the UK.

A tragic incident occurred in Manchester last week, when two female police-officers were killed in a shooting and grenade attack. This horrific crime has raised the question of whether the UK police force should be armed like their counterparts around the world. Currently, the UK is one of a few western countries (including the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand and Norway) where police officers are not routinely armed when on patrol, a shocking concept in the United States.

Although it may be a surprise to those accustomed to the American standards and laws, an unarmed police force is a long-standing tradition in the UK, and it is a tradition that many Britons are unwilling to surrender. The public is divided almost evenly on this issue; however, police officers themselves are among the most vociferous in arguing for the continued unarmed form of policing. A 2006 poll of over 47,000 police officers found that 82% did not want to be armed while on duty, even though over half claimed they had been in significant danger while working. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19641398]

Fortunately, the fact is that there is very little gun crime in Britain. Homicide rates are at their lowest point for 30 years, and gun crime has been falling steadily. In 2011-12 there were 39 fatal shootings – 20 less than previous year. Furthermore, the number of police officers killed in the line of duty has been mercifully low; 76 police officers have died in service in all types of incidents since 1945. In comparison, according to the Officer Down Memorial Page, 84 American police officers have lost their lives in 2012 alone. Nevertheless, the families of British police killed and injured in recent years have regularly called for officers to be armed.

There are a number of arguments commonly made against the introduction of guns for on-duty police officers. Experts have argued that the introduction of guns can potentially cause an increase in the number of guns in circulation, by adding to the overall number of firearms in the country. Gun control in the UK is strong and there is very little public opposition to the strict laws governing gun ownership and use. Naturally, it is impossible to prevent all illegal gun ownership, but with relatively few guns in public hands, there is less need for police officers to be armed than in countries where gun ownership is less strictly controlled.

One of the principal arguments opposing routinely arming police officers in the UK is the long tradition of policing by consent of the people.  High-ranking police officers are concerned that arming officers would make them less approachable for the public, thereby severing important contact with the community. The presence of the British army and armed police in Northern Ireland has created longstanding issues of trust and a lack of community support for the police, and this is an experience that many leading police officers are unwilling to repeat elsewhere.

Clearly this incident is a tragedy for all concerned and a distressing time for all of Britain’s serving police officers. Personally, I deeply respect the brave decision of police to go into the line of duty without firearms and I believe the British tradition of the unarmed officer should continue. In reality I don’t think having armed officers throughout the country would make British society dramatically safer; I generally feel safe walking the streets of London, Birmingham and other big cities and I appreciate the approachable nature of British police. For a country girl like me, it’s a slightly unnerving sight when I walk around Nashville and other American towns and regularly see police armed with guns. That’s not to say that I don’t think American police should carry guns, however. Policing policy should be made to suit the country being policed; in America more guns in private hands makes public officials having guns a necessity, while in the UK low levels of gun crime makes routinely armed police potentially more of a problem than a solution.

Tragically, the deaths of these women is a reminder to us that police officers around the world put themselves in harm’s way every day while doing their jobs and supporting our communities, whether armed or not, and they deserve the respect, admiration and gratitude of everyone they work to protect.

[Image Credit: http://www.nuffieldbioethics.org/sites/default/files/images/British%20police.jpg]

About author

Hannah Godfrey

Hannah is an exchange student from the UK, where she studies at the University of Warwick. Her major is Comparative American Studies, incorporating the study of the history, literature and cultures of both the United States and Latin America, along with Spanish. Having lived in Connecticut as a child, Hannah has had a lifelong interest in American history which has been supplemented by a growing interest in US politics, particularly in social issues such as ethnicity, race and gender.

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